Mata.co.id – Who does not know Borobudur Temple? The Borobudur temple is a historic relic temple which is also the largest Buddhist temple in the world. Its location in the city of Magelang, Central Java. If we look at a glance, this temple has a symmetry aspect that fits with a very unique building form. Proud to be an Indonesian society, the country is rich in art and culture. Do not get me wrong, most foreign tourists spend years only to learn the art of Indonesian culture.
The Origin of Borobudur Name
The origin of Borobudur name is not known for sure. But the first person to find the temple is Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, he asked Borobudur in 1814. And the name of Borobudur he entered the book entitled History of Java Island. “Boro” is taken from the name of the village where the temple stands, and “Budur” means Purba.
History of Borobudur Temple
Historically, Borobudur Temple was estimated to be built by Samaratungga in the 8th or 9th century. The construction process takes about 50-100 years in 760 – 825 AD. But the royal religion Samaratungga not known for sure, based on the findings of Sojomerto inscription shows that the kingdom is a Hindu religion. So on what basis is this temple made? Still a mystery.
Its development is still not revealed. If we see, the stone is very beautiful. Some say the stone came from Mount Merapi. So how to take it? Because the distance between the Merapi and the temple takes a long time the location of the temple above the hill. Then who made it?
This made the scientists interested in visiting the Borobudur Temple, and consequently they did not find the things they were looking for. If reviewed more deeply, at that time humans have not learned the architecture is very sophisticated let alone produce a very very extraordinary temple. But when investigated the plan there are strange patterns where the temple serves as a clock, where the needle is a shadow of the stupa.
Stages – The Development Stage of Borobudur Temple
Based on the findings of the archaeologists, originally Borobudur Temple was made with a giant crown in the form of a stupa at its peak. But the weight will endanger the foot of the temple, then the architects decided to divide the stupa into several parts of a small stupa. This is the estimation of the stages to build the Borobudur temple:
1. First Stage
It is estimated that Borobudur is not entirely composed of andesite rocks, part of the hill is compacted and covered by rocks like shells. This is to strengthen the land hill. Initially the building will be built like a pyramid berundak. But changed and re-unpacked and compiled into 3 steps.
2. Second Phase
Add a fence, circular steps and build a single stupa.
3. Third Stage
Start building small chunks from the main stupa to become 3 stupas, adding additional legs to strengthen the temple. Because the temple is made on a hill land prone to landslides and collapsed. In addition the foundation is widened, with stupas that surround 1 large stupa. Also made a circular terrace around a row of small stupas.
4. Phase Four
At this stage, the construction of the temple there is a change that is perfecting the relief, making a balustrade fence in the outer part, making the arch above the door, changing the stairs, and the tip of the foot.
The Abandoned Period of Borobudur Temple
Borobudur abandonment occurred around the year 928-1006, allegedly because of Mount Merapi erupted and Borobudur buried by volcanic ash. At that time the time of King Mpu Sindok, he moved his people to East Java. Immediately the temple was abandoned. It was so long buried by volcanic ash, began to grow bushes and wild trees, until the temple is like a small hill. At the same time, no one is on pilgrimage to Borobudur. This was reinforced by the number of people who converted to Islam in the 15th century.
Re-invention of Borobudur Temple
In 1811 -1816 Java was under British rule. Thomas Stamford Raffles who is governor is very interested in the history of Java. He collected ancient Javanese antique arts and wrote notes on Javanese history and culture, he deliberately circled the island of Java only to hunt historic inscriptions.
He arrived in Semarang in 1814, at once he immediately got word about the great monument in the forest area Bumisegoro. Sir Thomas was very interested, but was unable because he was on duty. He also sent H.C. Cornelius to investigate the monument in question.
H.C. Cornelius finally investigated by bringing 200 subordinates to cut down trees and dig the soil that covered the temple. But at that time the land is considered vulnerable to landslides, so digalianpun not the maximum, then gave sketches of Borobudur temple on Sir Thomas. Although only that, Sir Thomas Raffles is considered very meritorious.
In 1835 Java was occupied by the Dutch, Hartmann continued the work of Sir Thomas Stamford Rafless. He was interested in researching and caring for the Borobudur Temple. Unfortunately he did not write notes with what he did, but the cleaning of the temple was still going on. In 1842 Hartmann found the main stupa but it was empty. Studipun still a mystery.
Furthermore, a Dutch engineer named F.C Wilsen an expert in engineering come to research the monument and draw a sketch of Borobudur relief. Until the study continued by J.F.G Brumund to examine more detail the monument and combine the reliefs that have been in the picture F.C. Wilsen, he completed his research in 1859. The Dutch East Indies government planned to publish articles from Brumund and Wilsen’s studies. But Brumund refused to cooperate. Finally, the Government of the Netherlands East Indies another scientist named C. Leemans to combine the work of Wilsen and Brumund. Finally in 1873 an article on Borobudur Temple was published, then translated into French a year later. And the first photograph of Borobudur Temple was immortalized by the Dutch engrafi experts in 1873.
Finally Borobudur increasingly famous throughout the world, making it a source of souvenirs and income for collectors. The head of the Buddha archa is one of the objects to be stolen. But the size of a very large and heavy stone is very unlikely to carry. But in fact, many Buddha heads are loose. Finding the increasingly unstable conditions, in 1882 the Government appointed Groenveldt to hold further investigations. But this is considered excessive. Finally Borobudur left but still be noticed.
Restoration of Borobudur Temple
The Dutch East Indies government plans to protect the Borobudur Temple and preserve the sanctuary and purity of the temple. Finally under the Dutch East Indies government, Yzerman the head of archeology in Yogyakarta assigned 3 officials who work in different fields namely Brandes, Theodoor van Erp, and Van de Kamer. He realized that the temple looks not perfect, finally the restoration of Borobudur Temple performed for the first time with conventional technology. This avoids temple stone damage. Nevertheless, he is very meritorious for saving the relics of a very ancient heritage. The colonists wrote love Indonesia Cultural same, we do not want to lose yes.
Back in the topic, in 1902 the restoration plan will be carried out in three steps: arrange the corner of the building and other parts that allow temple collapse, fence temple restoration and repair drainage system, move loose or loose stones and restore main stupa. The restoration was done with a fund of 48,800 Guilders.
The restoration of the next stage of 1907-1911, led by Theodor van Erp, he dug the ground to find the lost Buddha head, besides he wanted to build three circular terraces. In the process of dismantling, he found many things to be fixed. Ask for proposals for additional budget. After that the restoration continues until finally Borobudur looks new again. Unfortunately the Van Erp renovation process uses concrete so it causes new problems.
The Renovation Continues …
Finally in 1960, the Government of Indonesia took the initiative to conduct a major renovation. By making a request to the international community to restore Borobudur. The plan was successful, and Indonesia took a thousand steps. The foundation is solidified, relief cleaned, dismantling five terraces, implanting water channels. Until finally Borobudur temple like now.
This temple was entered the list of UNESCO in 1991 as a World Heritage Site in Indonesia. No wonder many foreign tourists who want to visit Borobudur temple because this temple has a stunning architecture consisting of 6 square-shaped terraces, 504 statues of Buddha, 2672 relief panel and 72 stupas. With an area of 123mx123 m and 43 meters high.