What is Eyes?

What is Eyes?
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Mata.co.id – The eye is the organ of vision. Eye detect light and convert it into electrochemical impulses in nerve cells. “Eyes” is the simplest, such as microorganisms, not doing anything, but it can detect whether light or dark surroundings, which is enough to regulate circadian rhythms. What is Eyes?

What is Eyes?

Definition Eye

Eye is a tool found on the human senses. In constant eye adjust the amount of incoming light, focusing on objects near and far, and produces continuous picture that immediately delivered to the brain.

Structure And Function Eyes

Here will be discussed the structure and function of the eye. our eye consists of a variety of structures at once with its function. the structure of the eye itself or can call the anatomy of the eye includes the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina, optic nerve, aqueous humor and vitreous humor each of which has a function or work with. I discuss one by one aja yah about the structure and function of the eye, where each of the eye structure has physiology of the eye itself.

The following eye structure and its physiological :
  • Sclera (the white part of the eye): an outer layer of the eye which is white and relatively strong.
  • Conjunctiva: a thin membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and the outer sclera.
    Cornea: transparent structure that resembles a dome, is a wrapper of the iris, pupil and anterior chamber and helps focus light.
  • Pupil: black area in the center of the iris.
    Iris: ring-shaped colored tissue, hangs behind the cornea and in front of the lens; controls the amount of light entering the eye by changing the size of the pupil.
  • Lens: double convex structure hanging between the aqueous and vitreous humor; helps to focus light onto the retina.
  • Retina: a layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eyeball; it sends visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain.
  • Optic nerve: a collection of millions of nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the retina to the brain.
  • Aqueous humor: clear, watery fluid that flows between the lens and the cornea (fill in the anterior segment of the eye), and is a food source for the lens and cornea; produced by the ciliary processes.
  • Vitreous humor: a transparent gel which contained behind the lens and in front of the retina (fill in the posterior segment of the eye).

Eye Organ Exterior

  • Eyelashes
    This section serves to filter the light to be received
  • Eyebrows
    This section serves to hold the sweat from getting into the eyeball
  • Eyelid
    This section serves to cover and protect the eyes

Eyes Organ Inside

There is a section on the eye organ that work together to deliver light from the source to the brain to be digested by the nervous system. Now these parts are:

Parts of The Eye


  • Cornea
    The cornea protects the sensitive part behind it, helps the eye focus on the retina shadow. The cornea is the outermost part of the eye that receives light from the light source
  • Sclera
    Is part of the eye wall is white and has an average thickness of 1 millimeter but in irensi muscles, thickened to 3 millimeters.
  • Pupil And Tunica Rainbow
    Light from the outside will be first received the cornea, then the light will be forwarded to the pupil. The pupil determines the amount of light entering the eye deeper. The pupils worked on receiving light. Pupils dilated if a dark room conditions, and will be narrowed if the condition of the room was bright. The width of the pupils affected by the iris around him. Iris function as the diaphragm. Iris this is seen as the colored part of the eye.
  • Eye lens
    Of the pupil, the light transmitted to the eye lens receives light from the pupil and pass them on to the retina. The function of the eye lens is set to focus the light, so that the light falling directly on the retina yellow spots. The workings of the eye lens that is when the eyes see objects near and far. When viewing a distant object (light coming from far away), the eye’s lens will be depleted. As for seeing objects that are close (light coming from close), the eye lens will thicken.
  • Retina or Tunica Jala
    This section is the most sensitive part of the eye to light, particularly the part of the retina called the yellow spots. After the retina, the light transmitted to the optic nerve.
  • Optic nerve
    In this section all the objects from the eye will be sent to the brain. The optic nerve enters the cord and cone cells in the retina, which sends signals to the brain.

Light that enters through the cornea forwarded to the pupil. Iris regulate the amount of incoming light by opening and closing, as well as a crack in the camera lens. If the surrounding environment is dark, then the incoming light will be more; if the environment around the light, then the incoming light becomes less. Pupil size is controlled by the pupillary sphincter muscle, which opens and closes the iris.


The lens on the back of the iris. By changing its shape, the lens focuses light onto the retina. If the eye to focus on close objects, the ciliary muscles contract, so that the lens becomes thicker and stronger. If the eye to focus on distant objects, the ciliary muscle will relax and the lens becomes thinner and weaker. Along with age, the lens becomes less flexible, its ability to thicken be reduced so that the ability to focus on close objects are also reduced. This condition is called presbyopia.

Retina contains nerves and vessels darah.Bagian light most sensitive retina is the macula, which has hundreds of nerve endings ends saraf.Banyaknya This causes visual image tajam.Retina change that image into electrical waves which brought optic nerve to the brain.

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The optic nerve connects the retina by splitting the track. Most of nerve fibers cross to the opposite side to the optic chiasm (a region that is right under the front part of the brain). Then before it gets to the back of the brain, the nerve bundles will recombine.

Eye balls are divided into two sections, each filled with the liquid:
  1. Anterior segment: from the cornea to the lens, the aqueous humor that provides a source of energy for the structure of the eye in it. Anterior segment itself is divided into two parts (the anterior chamber: from the cornea to the iris, and the posterior chamber: from the iris to the lens). Under normal circumstances, the aqueous humor is produced in the posterior chamber, and then through the pupil into the anterior chamber and then out of the eyeball through a channel that is the end of the iris.
  2. Posterior segment: starting from the rear edge of the lens to the retina, contains vitreous humor which helps keep the shape of the eyeball.
Eye Muscles, Nerves Eyes and Blood Vessels
Eyes have muscles, nerves and blood vessels. Some muscles working together move the eyes. Every muscle is stimulated by certain cranial nerves. Orbital bone that protects the eye also contains various other nerves, namely:
  • Optic nerve carries nerve impulses generated in the retina to the brain
  • Lacrimal nerve stimulates the formation of tears by the lachrymal glands
  • Other nerve delivers sensation to another part of the eye and stimulate the muscles on the orbital bone.
Retinalis ophthalmic artery and arterial blood funnel into the left eye and right eye, while the eye is carried by the blood from the ophthalmic veins and venous blood retinalis.Pembuluh it in and out through the back of the eye.
Eye Protection Structure
Structures around eye protection and allows the eye to move freely in all these arah.Struktur protect the eyes against dust, wind, bacteria, viruses, fungi and other harmful ingredients, but also allows the eye to remain open so that light can still be masuk.adapun structure eye protection, include:
  • Orbita
    Orbita is a bony cavity containing the eyeball, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, fat and structures that produce and drain tears.
  • Eyelid
    The eyelids are thin folds of skin that protect the eyes reflexively mata.Kelopak immediately shut down to protect the eyes from foreign objects, wind, dust and light very terang.Ketika blink, the eyelids help spread the liquid across the surface of the eye and when closed, eyelids maintain the moisture mata.Tanpa surface moisture, the cornea can become dried, injured and not translucent cahaya.Bagian inside of the eyelid is a thin membrane (conjunctiva) that also wraps the surface of the eye.
  • Eyelashes
    Lash is a short hair that grows at the end of the eyelid and helps protect the eye by acting as a barrier (the barrier) small .Kelenjar at the end of the eyelid produce an oily substance that prevents the evaporation of tears.
  • Lacrimal Gland
    Lacrimal gland is located at the top outer edge of the left and right eyes and produce encer.Air tears welled eyes into the nose through the lacrimal duct 2; each duct has a hole at the tip of the upper and lower eyelids, near the nose. Tears serves to keep moisture and eye health, also trap and dispose of small particles entering the eye. In addition, tears are rich in antibodies that help prevent infection.

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